Immune Paralysis and Sepsis

Hall MW. Immune Modulation in Pediatric Sepsis. J Pediatr Intensive Care. 2019;8(1):42–50. doi:10.1055/s-0038-1676607

J. J. Presneill, T. Harris, A. G. Stewart, J. F. Cade, J. W. Wilson, A randomized phase II trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in severe sepsis with respiratory dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166, 138-143 (2002).

Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

B. Rosler, S. Herold, Lung epithelial GM-CSF improves host defense function and epithelial repair in influenza virus pneumonia-a new therapeutic strategy? Mol Cell Pediatr 3, 29 (2016).

S. Herold et al., Inhaled granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor as treatment of pneumonia-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 189, 609-611 (2014).

E. S. Halstead et al., GM-CSF overexpression after influenza a virus infection prevents mortality and moderates M1-like airway monocyte/macrophage polarization. Respir Res 19, 3 (2018).

T. M. Umstead et al., Lower respiratory tract delivery, airway clearance, and preclinical efficacy of inhaled GM-CSF in a postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia model. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 318, L571-L579 (2020).

F. F. Huang et al., GM-CSF in the lung protects against lethal influenza infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184, 259-268 (2011).

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

R. Tazawa et al., Inhaled granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor as therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181, 1345-1354 (2010).

R. Tazawa et al., Inhaled GM-CSF for Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. N Engl J Med 381, 923-932 (2019).

Note: Not all clinical trials of sargramostim are listed.